This bibliography is intended to provide free open fully accessible resources for further adventures in Old Occitan. I may add to it along the way, but I wish to keep it brief and compact, as a useful starting-point for other readers; it is not meant to be comprehensive or exhaustive. 


Base text: Clovis Brunel, Bertran de Marseille. La vie de Sainte Énimie. (Paris: Champion, 1916). You can read it online for free at the Internet Archive.

The manuscript, a late 13th- or early 14th-c. unicum, is Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal 6355. Arlima provides a description. It has, alas, not yet been digitised.

The earlier Latin hagiography, late 11th to 12th c., is in a 14th-c. manuscript: Vita sancta Enimiae. Bibliothèque nationale de France lat. 913. Not yet digitised, but the BNF provides a description.


Trobaretz: Occitan manuscripts online (Courtney Wells). There are 30-odd chansonniers / canzoniere, and Medieval Occitan literature as a whole—lyric poetry and otherwise—is in 100+ manuscripts; one of the best lists, including links directly to digitised manuscripts in their home libraries, is including direct links to manuscripts.

Arlima (ARchives de LIttérature du Moyen Âge): bibliographical and other research tools, updates on freshly digitised manuscripts, a vital central repository
chansonniers occitans: list of the big collection/compilation codices (mostly lyric poetry, vidas, razos), and links where available online.
individual poets (includes links to manuscripts, where available online).

JONAS project: Institut de recherche et d’histoire des textes (IRHT / CNRS): repository of medieval manuscripts in Old Occitan and Old French. > mediatèca > bibliotèca > manuscripts.

Troubadour Melodies Database > the 15 manuscripts with musical notation.


The JONAS project includes catalogues, scholarly editions, codicological studies, and works on reception and transmission history.

Repertorio informatizzato dell’antica letteratura trobadorica e occitana (RIALTO): an electronic repository of troubadour and other Medieval Occitan literature: the oldest texts, Troubadour lyric poetry, the vidas, epistolary poetry, narrative poetry, narrative prose, religious poetry, didactic poetry, religious prose, and practical treatises (the only one currently listed is a medical text)., dir. Leonardo Marcovati: a rich collection of troubadour lyric poetry; includes English translations and musical performances for many of the poems.

Troubadour Melodies Database, “transcriptions for the extant troubadour melodies. Each melody appears as it is found in its manuscript, including all of the melodies for each text. The database will be fully searchable for notes, note patterns, and will also allow searches by contour on the Melody Search page. You may also search by genre, catalog number, and troubadour in the main search block on the right side of each page. Melodies can also be browsed under the Melodies tab in sortable tables listed by catalog number, genre, manuscript, troubadour, and either the song’s standardized incipit or the incipit as it appears in the manuscript. There are currently 333 melodies included in the database comprising the main corpus of secular works as well as some others.”

Continuing beyond Old Occitan into some of its kith and kin, Medieval Catalan literature (with which there is significant overlap in a cultural continuum at, for example, the time of the Occitan Saint Enimia manuscript’s composition):

CODITECAM: digital corpus of Medieval Occitan texts; and their links.

Repertorio informatizzato dell’antica letteratura catalana (RIALC).


Kathryn Klingebiel’s Occitan Lexicon Online provides a comprehensive (at the time of writing) collection of links to what is currently available—and as far as possible freely openly accessible—online.

Emil Levy
Petit dictionnaire provençal-français (Heidelberg, 1909); via
Provenzalisches Supplement-Wörterbuch : Berichtigungen und Ergänzungen zu Raynouards Lexique roman (Leipzig, 1894); via

François-Just-Marie Raynouard, Lexique roman ou dictionnaire des troubadours (Paris, 1844); via

William S. Annis, Lingweenie > Occitan provides a useful basic grammar.


Littérature occitane du Moyen Âge
individual poets (primary materials, secondary studies, bibliography).

O’Brien old bibliography for Old Occitan and Old French literature (2005).

RIALTO’s short bibliography.

RIALC’s bibliography.

Troubadour Melodies Database > bibliography.


Bibliografia Elettronica dei Trovatori: “a relational database devoted to Provençal troubadours’ texts, the core of a possible internet archive of all European medieval lyrics (authors, texts, prosody, manuscripts, modern bibliography).”

Miriam Cabré’s bibliographical work for Medieval Occitan and Catalan literature, in The Year’s Work in Modern Language Studies. Accessible through JSTOR.

Tenso is the journal of the Société Guilhem IX, one of the two principal Occitanist scholarly societies. It produces extensive bibliographies. Accessible via Project Muse.


A very short selection of general introductory and broad overview works written in English, each of which offers further bibliographies …

F.R.P. Akehurst and Judith M. Davis, eds. A Handbook of the Troubadours (1995).

Marcus Bull and Catherine Léglu, eds. The World of Eleanor of Aquitaine: Literature and Society in Southern France between the Eleventh and Thirteenth Centuries (2005).

Simon Gaunt and Sarah Kay, eds. The Troubadours: An Introduction (1999).

William D. Paden. An Introduction to Old Occitan (1988).

Linda M. Paterson. The World of the Troubadours: Medieval Occitan Society, c. 1100-1300 (1993).

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